Even the smartest folks I know can’t get apostrophes right. (Please don’t read all my blog posts and find the mistakes!). Let me see if I can help.
- “It’s” is equivalent to “it is”. If you write “it’s” in a sentence, check it makes sense if you replace it with “it is”. If yes, good. If no, you probably meant “its”
- “Its” is a possessive. “The dog looked at its tail”. As in, the tail attached to the dog was stared at by the aforementioned canine
Get those right, and you’re in the top 98% of apostrophe users.
Don’t write “In the 1980’s, rock music was…”. You mean “In the 1980s, …”. As in, the plural: the ten years that constitute the decade that began in 1980. These are also correct: “He collected LPs” or “She installed LEDs instead of incandescent globes”. You’ll find some people argue about these: for example, some folks write “mind your P’s and Q’s”, and argue correctness. I personally think it’s wrong, there are many Ps and Qs, and so it should be “mind your Ps and Qs”.
Watch out for possession of non-plurals that end in consonants. “Hugh William’s blogs are annoying” and “Hugh Williams’ blogs are annoying” are both wrong. “Hugh Williams’s blogs are annoying” is right (in more ways than one?).
One trick I use is this: if you say the “s”, add the “s”. Hugh Williams’s blog. Ross’s Dad. The boss’s desk. If you don’t say it, don’t add it. His Achilles’ heel. That genres’ meaning.
Have a fun week!